Showing posts with label Syria. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Syria. Show all posts

Friday, April 7, 2017

Putin Considers US Attack in Syria Aggression Against Sovereign State, prepares for Full scale War ?

us airstrike

US Commited a ‘Blatant Agression’ Act Against Syrian Army Base – General Staff

Syrian General Staff called the recent US strike on Ash Sha’irat military airfield near Homs in Syria a ‘blatant agression’ act aimed against Syrian Army.  The Syrian Defense Ministry also added that this strike puts the US as an ally of such terrorist groups as Daesh and Jabhat Fatah al Sham (formerly known as the al-Nusra Front).  The US launched 59 Tomahawk cruise missiles at the Syrian military airfield in Ash Sha’irat near Homs late Thursday. US President Donald Trump said the attack was a response to the alleged chemical weapon use in Idlib on Tuesday, which Washington blames on Damascus.


Russia Suspends Memorandum With US on Flight Safety in Syria – Foreign Ministry

Russia has suspended its memorandum of understanding on air safety over Syria with the United States following the deadly US missile attack on the Sha’irat airfield, the Russian Foreign Ministry said Friday.

“Russia suspends the memorandum on the prevention of incidents and ensuring air safety during operations in Syria reached with the US,” the ministry said in a statement.
The United States launched 59 Tomahawk cruise missiles at the Syrian military airfield in Ash Sha’irat near Homs late Thursday. US President Donald Trump said the attack was a response to the alleged chemical weapon use in Idlib on Tuesday, which Washington blames on Damascus.



Putin Considers US Attack in Syria Aggression Against Sovereign State – Kremlin

The United States’ missile strikes on a military airfield in Syria violates international law and represents an act of aggression against a sovereign state under a far-fetched pretext, Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov said Friday.

MOSCOW— The US launched 59 Tomahawk cruise missiles at the Syrian military airfield in Ash Sha’irat near Homs late Thursday. US President Donald Trump said the attack was a response to the alleged chemical weapon use in Idlib on Tuesday, which Washington blames on Damascus.

“President [Vladimir] Putin regards the US attacks on Syria as an aggression against a sovereign state in violation of the norms of international law, and under a trumped-up pretext at that,” Pesov told reporters.

Russian President Vladimir Putin also sees the latest US missile strikes on a military airfield in Syria as an attempt to distract from the mounting civilian casualties in Iraq, the Kremlin added.
“Putin also sees the attacks on Syria by the US as an attempt to divert the international community’s attention from the numerous casualties among civilians in Iraq.”

The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) had confirmed that Syrian armed forces do not possess chemical weapons, the Kremlin cited Russian President Vladimir Putin as saying Friday while warning of the danger of ignoring terrorist use of chemical weapons.
US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson said in a statement after the US attack that there were no discussions or prior contacts between the United States and Moscow ahead of the missile strike on the Syrian base.

“The fact of the destruction of all chemical weapons stockpiles has been recorded and confirmed by the OPCW, a specialized UN unit,” Peskov told reporters.
“At the same time, in Putin’s opinion, total disregard for the use of chemical weapons by terrorists only drastically aggravates the situation,” Peskov said.


US decision to Strike Syria was made Ahead of Idlib Chemical Attack, Used as Pretext to show Force – Russian Foreign ministry

US attack in Syria is nothing else than a show of force, the Russian Foreign Ministry said in a statement on Friday. The decision to attack Syria was made ahead of Idlib chmical incident, used as a pretext for this demonstration of strength.

The US missile strikes on Syria airfield os a clear act of aggression against sovereign Syria, the Russia Foreign Ministry said. It is obvious that the US missile attack in Syria was prepared “in advance,” the Russian Foreign Ministry stated. “It is clear that the decision to conduct the strike [in Syria] was made in Washington before the incident in Idlib, which was used as a pretext for this demonstration of strength,” the Russian Foreign Ministry said.

The US missile attack on the Sha’irat airfield in Syria further degrades Russian-US relations, the Russian Foreign Ministry added. “The actions taken today by the US further destroy Russian-US relations,” the ministry said in a statement. The United States launched 59 Tomahawk cruise missiles at the Syrian military airfield in Ash Sha’irat near Homs late Thursday. US President Donald Trump said the attack was a response to the alleged chemical weapon use in Idlib on Tuesday, which Washington blames on Damascus.

“Without bothering to figure anything out, the US moved toward a demonstration of strength, to military resistance against a country that is fighting international terrorism,” the ministry said.

Daesh Militants Attacked Syrian Army Positions Simultaneously With US Strike

Daesh (banned in numerous countries) terrorist fighters had attacked the Syrian armed forces at the same time and in the same vicinity as the US missile strike on its airfield near Homs, an informed source told Sputnik on Friday.

The source said the terrorists launched an attack on a Homs-Sha’irat stretch of highway at around 23:00 GMT and held their territory for over an hour until the arrival of reinforcements.
“Is it a coincidence that the IS [Daesh] fighters attacked one of the defensive positions of the Homs-Palmyra route simultaneously with the US attack on Sha’irat?” the source said.
The US launched 59 Tomahawk cruise missiles at the Syrian military airfield in Ash Sha’irat near Homs late Thursday. US President Donald Trump said the attack was a response to the alleged chemical weapon use in Idlib on Tuesday, which Washington blames on Damascus.

Sunday, October 18, 2015

DC Watches Helplessly as Putin Bombs the Daylights out of their Pet Terrorists

Russia’s Offensive Begins
Well, well, Russia has now begun their long-awaited offensive against ISIS/Daesh/Al-Nusra/Al-Qaeda/Free Syrian Army, over the past week, a great deal has been seen(and learned) about what it means, and how it will change the dynamic going forward.

Saturday, October 17, 2015

The Battles Of And For Idlib:

by Ghassan Kadi
If there was ever indeed a civil uprising in Syria, it would have had to be, by-and-large, in Idlib.
Idlib is an impoverished region of Syria. It is located in the north-west, inland from the coastal Syrian Army stronghold of Lattakia, and south of Aleppo; Syria’s second largest city and economic hub. Being predominantly Sunni and poor, the combination made it a lucrative recruitment spot for the various Takfiri groups.

Wednesday, October 14, 2015

Russia to US: Quit Cruise Missile Fairy Tales, Deal With ISIL Toyotas


Russian Foreign Ministry spokeswoman said that Russia is calling on the United States to stop telling fairy tales about Russian cruise missiles and to better handle the problem of off-road Toyota pickups ending up in the hands of the Islamic State in Syria.

Sunday, October 11, 2015

Week one of the Russian military intervention in Syria

This column was originally written for the Unz Review:
The speed at which the Russian military operation in Syria was conducted what a big surprise for the US intelligence community (which I can hardly blame as I was just as surprised myself). Make no mistake here, the Russian force in Syria is a small one, at least for the time being, and it does not even remotely resemble what the rumors had predicted, but it is especially the manner in which it is being used which is very original: as a type of “ force multiplier ” for the Syrian military and a likely cover for the Iranian one. This is a very elegant solution in which a small force achieves a disproportionately big result. This is also a rather dangerous strategy, because it leaves the force very vulnerable, but one which, at least so far, Putin very successfully explained to the Russian people.
According to the most recent poll , 66% of Russian support the airstrikes in Syria while 19% oppose them. Considering the risks involved, these are extremely good numbers. Putin’s personal popularity, by the way, is still at a phenomenal 85% (all these figures have an margin of error of 3.4%). Still, these figures indicate to me that the potential for concern and, possibly, disappointment is present. The big advantage that Putin has over any US President is that Russians understand that wars, all wars, have a cost, and they are therefore nowhere as casualty-averse as the people in the USA or Europe. Still, while combat footage taken from UAV is a good start, Putin will have to be able to show something more tangible soon. Hence, probably, the current Syrian army counter-offensive. Still, the current way of triumphalism in Russia makes me nervous.
The reaction in the West, however, has been very negative, especially after the Russian cruise missile attacks (which mark the first time ever that the Russians have used their non-nuclear but strategic forces in a show of force aimed less as Daesh than at the USA).

On October 8th, the US Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter, declared:

We have not and will not agree to cooperate with Russia so long as they continue to pursue this misguided strategy. We’ve seen increasingly unprofessional behavior from Russian forces. They violated Turkish airspace, which as all of us here made clear earlier this week, and strongly affirmed today here in Brussels, is NATO airspace. They’ve shot cruise missiles from a ship in the Caspian Sea without warning. They’ve come within just a few miles of one of our unmanned aerial vehicles. They have initiated a joint ground offensive with the Syrian regime, shattering the facade that they’re there to fight ISIL. 
This will have consequences for Russia itself, which is rightfully fearful of attack upon Russia. And I also expect that in coming days, the Russians will begin to suffer casualties in Syria (Source: )
On the next day, the Russian Defense Ministry spokesman Maj. Gen. Igor Konashenkov replied by saying:
Representatives of the Russian Defense Ministry, in their evaluation of the actions of the US military and the various operations they are engaged worldwide, have never sunk down to the level to publicly express the hope for the death of US servicemen or, even less so, of ordinary Americans. Today’s announcement Pentagon chief Ashton Carter, unfortunately clearly illustrates the current level of political culture of some representatives of the US government or, should I say, their level of cynicism towards the rest of the world. I am sure that no US general would ever have allowed himself to express such feelings. (Source: )
Does that not remind you of something? Does that not sound like a repeat of the threat made by Saudi Arabia’s intelligence chief Prince Bandar bin Sultan ‘s threat to unleash ‘Chechen’ terror attacks against Russia? At the very least, this is, yet again, a sign that the US controls or, rather, thinks that it controls the Wahabi crazies and can unleash them against any opponent.
Typically, there are two basic ways the West handles any Russian military operation: they are either presented as mass murder and butchery or as gross, primitive and ineffective. CNN chose the second option and reported that “A number of cruise missiles launched from a Russian ship and aimed at targets in Syria have crashed in Iran, two U.S. officials told CNN Thursday”. Both Russia and Iran immediately denied that, as for the State Department and the Pentagon, they have refused to confirm or deny these reports.
Maria Zakarova, the spokeswoman for the Russian Foreign Ministry reacted with disgust to these reports on her FB account and wrote : “I have read the CNN reports claiming that “Russian cruise missiles fell in Iran.” I wonder, do they write that out of impotent anger, or what? As for the constantreferences to “sources” they remind of the channeling of water from the sewer”.
Clearly, the Russians are rather disgusted with the rather pathetic US reactions to the Russian military operation. As for US officials, they appear rather clueless as to what do do next.
However, these appearances can be deceiving: this “game” is very far from being over.
As I have written in a recent column , the notion that Russia has established a no-fly zone over Syria is plain false: four SU-30MS, even if backed by six SU-34s are not enough to establish any kind of no-fly zone. The real mission of these SU-30MSs is to protect the Russian Air Force from any overzealous Turkish or Israeli fighter, not to establish a no-fly zone. In fact, according to the commander of the USAF operation over Syria, the US flies many more sorties than the Russians. What he does not add is that most of these US sorties do not include the release of weapons whereas all the Russian ones do. But, really, this is comparing apples and oranges. The USAF can fly as many sorties as it wants, only the Russian aircraft are operating in close coordination with Syrian and Iranian ground forces.
What worries me most is that people on both sides like to engage in cheap bravado and say things like “the Americans/Russians would never dare to attack a Russian/American aircraft”. This is a very dangerous way of thinking about what is going on because it ignores all the historical evidence for decision-makers taking very dumb decisions to try to avoid appearing humiliated by the other side (Ehud Olmert in 2006, immediately comes to mind). The fact that Obama and the USA look totally out-smarted is nice, of course, but also potentially very dangerous.
The good news is that, at least for the time being, neither Russia nor the USA are directly threatening each other, at least not on a military level. The USAF apparently has decided on a 20miles “avoidance radius” and while the Russians have not made any statements about this, I am pretty sure that they also go out of their way not to interfere with the Americans, much less so threaten them directly. Still, this situation is inherently dangerous.
Since this is a real combat zone and not just some peacetime patrol area, Russian and American aircraft have to use radar modes which are normally associated with a hostile intent: not just scan the skies for any potential enemy, but also actively track any detected aircraft. This is a very delicate situation because once a radar has acquired an aircraft and is actively tracking it all the pilot has to do to attack is press one button. For the pilot in the aircraft being tracked, this is similar to having a gun pointed at you – it makes you very nervous. To make things worse, modern aircraft can actually engage each other without using these radar modes and they can try to hide their radar signals, but that only adds to the tension. It is precisely because the US and Russia are two nuclear powers that it is crucial that neither side count on the other one to “blink first” or play any game of chicken. The politicians can indulge in this kind of nonsense, but I hope that the generals on both sides will do everything in their power to avoid any such situation. Right now, the situation appears to be under control, but it could get worse very fast. Hopefully, the Pentagon and the Russian General Staff will come to an “de-conflicting” agreement soon.
There are numerous reports that Iran is preparing a major intervention in Syria. These reports come from many sources and I consider them credible simply because there is no way that the very limited Russian intervention can really change the time of the war, at least not by itself. Yes, I do insist that the Russian intervention is a very limited one. 12 SU-24M, 12 SU-25SM, 6 SU-34 and 4 SU-30SM are not a big force, not even backed by helicopters and cruise missiles. Yes, the Russian force has been very effective to relieve the pressure on the northwestern front and to allow for a Syrian Army counter-offensive, but that will not, by itself, end the war. For one thing, should things get really ugly, the Daesh crazies can simply repeat what they have already done in the past: cross the border into Turkey, Jordan and Iraq.

Furthermore, you cannot hold any ground from the air. For that, “boots on the ground” are needed and Russian boots are not coming – Putin has unambiguously stated that (although he did leave a small door open for a future change of strategy by saying that a ground intervention was not in the “current plans”). Regardless, anything short of a minor or very short intervention would be fantastically hard to sell in Russia and I therefore still don’t believe that it will happen. My bet is on the Iranians. Well, when I say “Iranians” I mean Iranians and their allies, including Hezbollah, but not necessarily in Iranian uniforms.
Chances are, the Iranians and the Syrians will want to keep the magnitude of the Iranian involvement as hidden from view as possible. But, of course, they won’t be able to fool the USA, Turkey or Israel for very long, at least not if a large Iranian force is involved.
So the big question for me is this: what will the USA do if (when?) Iran intervenes in Syria?
Chances are that the Iraqis will request the Russian help to defeat Daesh exactly at the moment when the Iranians make their move. If the Russians agree, and it looks like they might, the Russian Air Force will, in fact, be providing air cover for the Iranian forces moving across Iraq towards Syria. My guess is that the Russians will try to get some UNSC Resolution to allow an international intervention in Syria or that, failing that, they will try to get some kind of deal with the USA. But that is going to be awfully hard, as they Neocons will go ballistic if the Iranians actually make a big move into Syria.
Right now the Russian Air Force does not have the resources needed to support an Iranian move into Syria, and that might be the reason for a reappearance of the rumor about “six MiG-31s” going to Syria . I personally have seen no evidence for that, at least not form any halfway dencent source, but if that does really happen, then this will become a major game-changer because one thing is certain: MiG-31s will never be used against Daesh or even a few isolated Turkish or Israeli fighters; if the MiG-31s ever really show up in the Syrian skies, their goal will be to keep control of the Syrian airspace and that implies a direct and credible threat against the US and its allies. The same goes for the actual deployment of S-300s. Thank God,we are not there yet. But unless the Syrian Army manages an extremely successful offensive against Daesh, a large Iranian intervention will become very likely. Then things will become very dangerous indeed.
In the meantime, NATO is still busy making big statement about being “ ready to defend Turkey ” while McCain declares that the US and Russia are engaged in a “ proxy war ”. We ought to be grateful for such loud emissions of hot hair because, hopefully, as long as the western leaders feel that their empty talk makes them look credible, they will not be tempted to do something truly stupid and dangerous.
These are definitely dangerous times.
The Saker

There is an exhaustive explanation for the disgrace of the American allies in Syria

by Evgenii Krutikov
Translated by Carpatho-Russian
The scandal around the “Thirtieth Division”, prepared by American instructors for war with Assad, but who immediately surrendered to the Islamic “al-Nusra Front” right after crossing the Turkish border, is resounding around the entire world now. There will be many such scandals. They are predetermined by the very methodology of the American instruction of “allies” in Syria, a well as in Georgia or in Ukraine.

Saturday, October 10, 2015

What's Behind Carter's Claim That Russia Will Suffer Casualties in Syria?

When US Defense Secretary Ash Carter said that he expects Russia will soon suffer casualties, his phrase sparked the question whether the Pentagon has a Soviet-Afghanistan redux in mind for Syria, Germany-based political scientist and analyst Phil Butler remarks.

The real life "war on ISIL" conducted by the US is completely different from what Washington's tame media sources are telling the public: in fact it is a part of a US strategy of widespread regime change across much of the world, Germany-based American political scientist and analyst Phil Butler notes.

Update: Russian Aerospace Forces Conduct 64 Sorties in Syria, Hit 55 ISIL Targets

The Russian Aerospace Forces have conducted 64 sorties in Syria hitting 55 ISIL targets, the Russian Defense Ministry said Saturday.

The Russian military has increased the intensity of combat flights in Syria as the number of ISIL targets has grown, the Russian Defense Ministry's spokesman said.
"The increased intensity of the combat missions of our aircraft is related to a significant rise of the number of ground targets identified by means of air and space reconnaissance throughout the territory of the Syrian Arab Republic," Maj. Gen. Igor Konashenkov said adding that the strikes are conducted by Su-34, Su-24M and Su-25SM aircraft.
Russian airstrikes in Syria have significantly reduced ISIL's combat potential, their mobility as well as the terrorists' ability to attack, he said.

Russian Aerospace Forces Conduct 64 Sorties in Syria, Hit 55 ISIL Targets

The Russian Aerospace Forces have conducted 64 sorties in Syria hitting 55 ISIL targets, the Russian Defense Ministry said Saturday. The Russian military has increased the intensity of combat flights in Syria as the number of ISIL targets has grown, the Russian Defense Ministry's spokesman said.
"The increase in the intensity of the combat missions of our aircraft is related to a significant increase in the number of ground targets identified by means of air and space reconnaissance throughout the territory of the Syrian Arab Republic," Maj. Gen. Igor Konashenkov said adding that the strikes are conducted by Su-34, Su-24M and Su-25SM aircraft.

Details to follow

Friday, October 9, 2015

What are NATO Colonial forces Doing in Syria? ...Nothing

At a time when members of the international community could take meaningful steps to assist Syria in its fight against Islamic extremists, NATO has chosen to play the blame game and engage in tough rhetoric.

In general, the answer to the simple question of what the North Atlantic Alliance is exactly doing in Syria is nothing, journalist Artem Aslanyan maintains. "NATO representatives mostly criticize the Assad regime and Russian airstrikes in Syria."

The alliance lacks a comprehensive strategy towards Syria. Member states did not come up with one during NATO's latest summit in September 2014. Back then, the years-long civil war and Islamic State activities took backstage to the conflict in Ukraine.

Countries 'Liberated' by US Ask Russia for Help in Fighting Terrorism

Iraq and Afghanistan, which once were "liberated and democratized" by the US, are now reaching out for help from Russia in fighting ISIL terrorists. Moscow is ready to help but only in response to an official government request, Il Giornale reported.

Airstrikes in Syria Prove 'Russia Will Not Tolerate Half-Way Measures in Fighting Terrorism'
"The balance of power has changed in the Middle East," the article read.

Thursday, October 8, 2015

Tehran Has No Info on Cruise Missiles Which Allegedly Landed in Iran

Iranian defense ministry believes reports on "fallen Russian cruise missiles" are part of the intensified western propaganda war, according to a source.

Tehran has denied US reports that four of Russia's cruise missiles targeting ISIL actually fell to the ground in Iran, with the country's defense ministry calling the accusations "psychological war."

Russia's Defense Ministry also refutes US media reports of an alleged incident involving cruise missiles which were fired at ISIL positions in Syria on October 7, stating that all missiles hit their designated targets.

Tuesday, October 6, 2015

'Relentless' Russian Airstrikes Caught Terrified ISIL Off Guard - Source

A recent series of airstrikes launched by Russian air forces against the Islamic State in Syria caused the ISIL militants to evacuate their checkpoints in Raqqa and to cancel all public events there.

A source in the Islamic State’s so-called 'capital' told Sputnik on condition of anonymity that Russian airstrikes have caused widespread panic among the Islamist militants who apparently were not expecting such a relentless assault.
"They thought that Russian warplanes would act like their American counterparts – that they would launch some sporadic surgical strikes at dusk and then they would fly away," the source said. "Instead, Russian military aircraft constantly bombard ISIS positions in the vicinity of Raqqa, and these massed strikes have completely paralyzed the Islamist group’s activities. The Russian air operation proved to be extremely effective."

Finland Busts Key Refugee Myth: They Are Mostly Male and Not From Syria

The vast majority of refugees arriving in Finland are in fact male adults and not women or children, according to the country’s Ministry of the Interior.

The head of Finland's Immigration Services asylum unit, Esko Repo, and communications chief Hanna Kautto told the Finnish news outlet Yle that out of the 19,632 refugees that have arrived in Finland this year, over 15 thousand are adult males. The number of female migrants totals 2,816 and there are also about 2,000 children travelling with adults as well as roughly one thousand unaccompanied minors.
Furthermore, only 409 of the refugees came from Syria, with the majority of the migrants – nearly 14 thousand people – arriving from Iraq.

Monday, October 5, 2015

Major Interview (38 questions!) of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad to the Iranian Khabar TV channel

Following is the full text of the interview:
Question 1: In the name of God, the most compassionate, the most merciful. Mr. President, thank you very much for accepting the invitation of the Television of the Islamic Republic of Iran to give this interview. Thank you very much.

Dr. Lavrov nailed it on the head! See what he said...

Lavrov Says Moscow Ready to Establish Contacts With Free Syrian Army

Russia's Foreign Minister said Russia was willing to work with the Syrian opposition army to settle the crisis in Syria.

Moscow is prepared to set up contacts with the opposition's Free Syrian Army and have asked the United States for information on them, but so far Moscow has not received a response, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said Monday.

"In any case, I asked [US Secretary of State] John Kerry to have [the United States] give us some sort of information of where the Free Syrian Army is and who's running it," Lavrov said.

Jamming the Jihad & its supporters: Russian Electronic Warfare Systems Spotted in Syria

The state-of-the-art Russian electronic warfare system Krasukha-4 has reportedly been deployed in Syria.

The Russian military has deployed its mobile, ground-based electronic warfare system Krasukha-4 in Syria, according to footage placed on Russia's Zvezda news network.
At the beginning of the video (the 6th second), which shows a Russian-made Su-25 landing at a Syrian airfield, a characteristic set of antenna devices is visible in the background. These could be the Krasukha-4 system, Zvezda reported.

Western Media Laments as Russia Foils US Plans for No-Fly Zone Over Syria

The Western media is lamenting as Russia wrecks the nearly-set agreement of the US-led coalition to establish a no-fly zone over Syria based on Jordanian and Turkish plans, despite jihadist groups lacking any aerial strike capabilities, while adding that the US and its allies have begun “preparing to open up a major front in northeastern Syria”.

“The Russian forces now in place make it very, very obvious that any kind of no-fly zone on the Libyan model imposed by the US and allies is now impossible, unless the coalition is actually willing to shoot down Russian aircraft,” The Financial Times quotes Justin Bronk, a research analyst at the Royal United Services Institute as saying.

Sunday, October 4, 2015

The West Fears Russia’s Success in Syria - Not Its Failure

The Western response to the Russian air campaign in Syria provokes a sense of deja vu.

In every respect it is identical to the Western response to the Russian campaign in Chechnya in 1999. In the weeks following the start of that campaign Western pundits made a host of claims and predictions. They claimed the Russian airforce was bombing civilians, and accused Russia’s leadership of war crimes. They said Russian military action would radicalise the population, turning it against Russia. They predicted more terrorist attacks against Russia, and predicted Russia’s defeat.
All these claims and predictions proved wrong.

Breaking News: Russian Aviation Hits ISIL Training Center, Munition Depot Near Al-Tabqa

Russian Air Force has conducted 20 flights overnight targeting 10 ISIL facilities near the Syrian city of al-Tabqa, Defense Ministry spokesman Igor Konashenkov said Sunday.

"Su-34 bombers attacked the ISIL special training camp and munition depot with KAB-500 aviation bombs near Al-Tabqa, Ar-Raqqah province. As a result of explosion of the munition depot, the terrorist training camp was completely destroyed," Konashenkov told reporters.

Russian Su-25 jets have also attacked training camp of the Islamic State in Syrian Idlib governorate destroying workshop for explosive belt production.


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